In this article of QuantVan, we want to explain the definition of “Investment”, and the categories of investments and some other details about investing.


The goal of investing is to gradually build wealth over an extended time through the buying and holding of investment instruments. Investing takes a long-term approach. Meanwhile, trading involves more frequent transactions, such as the buying and selling of stocks, commodities, currency pairs, or other instruments. The goal is to generate returns that outperform buy-and-hold investing.there are a variety of tradings. One of the most noticeable ones is Algorithmic trading.

Investing and trading are two different methods of attempting to profit in the financial markets.

Both investors and traders seek profits through market participation. While investors may be content with annual returns of 10 percent to 15 percent, traders might seek a 10 percent return each month.

 In general, investors seek larger returns over an extended period through buying and holding. Traders, by contrast, take advantage of both rising and falling markets to enter and exit positions over a shorter timeframe, taking smaller, more frequent profits.

Categories of Investment:


As an investor, you have a lot of options for where to put your money. It’s important to weigh them carefully.

Investments are generally bucketed into some major categories: stocks, bonds, cryptocurrency, cash equivalents and etc. it has been stated that stocks and bonds are best for long-term growth.

Here you can find a brief explanation of some of these categories.


A stock is an investment in a specific company. When you purchase a stock, you’re buying a share — a small piece — of that company’s earnings and assets. Companies sell shares of stock in their businesses to raise cash; investors can then buy and sell those shares among themselves. Stocks sometimes earn high returns but also come with more risk than other investments. Companies can lose value or go out of business.

Investing money in the stock market is the number one way Americans build wealth and save for long-term goals like retirement.


A bond is a loan you make to a company or government. When you purchase a bond, you’re allowing the bond issuer to borrow your money and pay you back with interest.

Bonds are generally considered safer than stocks, but they also offer lower returns. The primary risk, as with any loan, is that the issuer could default. State and city government bonds are generally considered the next-safest option, followed by corporate bonds. The safer the bond, the lower the interest rate.

Mutual funds:

If the idea of picking and choosing individual bonds and stocks isn’t your bag, you’re not alone. In fact, there’s an investment designed just for people like you: the mutual fund.

Mutual funds allow investors to purchase a large number of investments in a single transaction. These funds pool money from many investors, then employ a professional manager to invest that money in stocks, bonds or other assets.

Mutual funds follow a set strategy — a fund might invest in a specific type of stocks or bonds, like international stocks or government bonds. Some funds invest in both stocks and bonds. How risky the mutual fund is will depend on the investments within the fund.

There are several reasons why an individual may invest in mutual funds instead of individual stocks. The most common advantages are that mutual funds offer the diversification, convenience, and lower costs.

Some investors find that buying a few shares of a mutual fund that meets their basic investment criteria easier than finding out what the companies the fund invests in actually do, and if they are good quality investments.

Whichever route you choose, the best way to reach your long-term financial goals and minimize risk is to spread your money across a range of asset types. That’s called asset allocation. Then within each asset class, you’ll also want multiple investments — that’s called diversification.

  • Asset allocation

     is important because different asset classes — stocks, bonds, ETFs, mutual funds, real estate — respond to the market differently. When one is up, another can be down. So deciding on the right mix will help your portfolio weather changing markets on the journey toward achieving your goals.

  •  Diversification

    means owning a range of assets across a variety of industries, company sizes, and geographic areas. It’s like a subset of asset allocation. Diversification is a technique that reduces risk by allocating investments among various financial instruments, industries, and other categories. It aims to maximize returns by investing in different areas that would each react differently to the same event.

Most investment professionals agree that, although it does not guarantee against loss, diversification is the most important component of reaching long-range financial goals while minimizing risk.

Building a diversified portfolio of individual stocks and bonds takes time and expertise, so most investors benefit from fund investing. Investing requires saving money to invest, then developing a diversified portfolio.

In the end, it is important to know how to manage your portfolio.


Despite the fact that which category you have invested in. there are some measurement factors that we explain below.

The formation of a profitable investment portfolio including cryptocurrencies is a relatively new task for financial market participants.


1.Return on investment

 ROI is one measure of an investment’s success. It directly measures the return on that investment relative to its cost. calculating the return of an investment divides into its cost. This is useful as a crude gauge of how effective investment is to a portfolio. This method can also be useful to measure and evaluate an entire portfolio.

2. Annualizing Returns

For multi-period returns, a common practice is to annualize returns. It is useful for making the returns more comparable across other portfolios or potential investments. It allows for a common denominator when comparing returns.

An annualized return is a geometric average of the amount of money earned by an investment each year. It shows what could have been earned over a period of time if the returns had been compounded. The annualized return does not give an indication of volatility experienced during the corresponding time. That volatility can be better measured using the standard deviation.